Indication: NESINA (alogliptin), KAZANO (alogliptin and metformin HCl), and OSENI (alogliptin and pioglitazone) are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI are not for treatment of type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis.

The generic versions of NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI may be affordable options for your patients with type 2 diabetes

Learn about generic versions of NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI
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Patient savings and support

The Takeda Diabetes Advantage Program can help eligible patients pay no more than $4 per month* for NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI. Also, use CoverMyMeds to help simplify the prior authorization (PA) process, and the savings calculator to get an estimate on how much your patients can save on their prescription.

Find out more about savings and support

*Eligibility restrictions apply: Patients may save up to $100 on NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI and up to $10 on metformin each month, when they fill their prescription for NESINA or OSENI at the same time. Depending on insurance coverage, savings and co-pay may vary. See www.takedadiabetesadvantage.com for full eligibility and terms and conditions. Savings card cannot be used with generics of NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI.

Every piece counts: Learn how to manage type 2 diabetes in multiple patients with the NESINA Family

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Janice requires an individualized treatment plan to help her meet her A1C goal. NESINA fits with her diet, exercise regimen, and other medications.

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Rachel was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. KAZANO may be appropriate for your newly diagnosed patients like her.

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Arthur is taking metformin but still has a high A1C. OSENI can help manage his type 2 diabetes.

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As a member, you’ll have exclusive access to content and resources. You will also be kept informed about the NESINA Family of treatments for type 2 diabetes.

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Help motivate your patients to practice better self-management

The NESINA Family Discussion Guides can help you encourage and support your patients during their treatment for type 2 diabetes.

Review the Guides

Important Safety Information for NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI

WARNING: CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE—for OSENI

  • Thiazolidinediones, including pioglitazone, which is a component of OSENI, cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients.

  • After initiation of OSENI, and after dose increases, monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of heart failure (e.g., excessive, rapid weight gain, dyspnea, and/or edema). If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care and discontinuation or dose reduction of pioglitazone in OSENI must be considered.

  • OSENI is not recommended in patients with symptomatic heart failure.

  • Initiation of OSENI in patients with established New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated.

WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS—for KAZANO

  • Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (greater than 5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally greater than 5 mcg/mL. Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g., cationic drugs such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment.

  • Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the Full Prescribing Information.

  • If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue KAZANO and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended.

  • NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI are contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reaction to any of the components of these products, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, or severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

  • KAZANO is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2).

  • KAZANO is contraindicated in patients with acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis.

  • Do not initiate OSENI in patients with established NYHA Class III or IV heart failure.

Warnings and Precautions—for KAZANO

  • Lactic acidosis: Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to immediately discontinue KAZANO and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider. Because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, obtain an eGFR before initiating KAZANO and at least annually thereafter; assess more frequently in patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly); KAZANO is not recommended in patients with an eGFR between 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Discontinue KAZANO at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart KAZANO if renal function is stable. KAZANO should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake. Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue KAZANO. Avoid use of KAZANO in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency: Metformin may lower Vitamin B12 levels. Monitor hematologic parameters annually.

Warnings and Precautions—for OSENI

  • Congestive heart failure: Fluid retention may occur and can exacerbate or lead to congestive heart failure. Combination use with insulin and use in congestive heart failure NYHA Class I and II may increase risk. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms.

  • Edema: Dose-related edema may occur. Use with caution in patients with edema.

  • Fractures: Increased incidence in female patients. Apply current standards of care for assessing and maintaining bone health.

  • Bladder cancer: Data suggest an increased risk of bladder cancer in pioglitazone users. Data also suggest that the risk increases with duration of use. Do not use OSENI in patients with active bladder cancer. Use caution when using in patients with a prior history of bladder cancer. Tell patients to promptly report any sign of hematuria or other symptoms such as dysuria or urinary urgency as these may be due to bladder cancer.

  • Macular edema: Macular edema has been reported in some patients taking pioglitazone. Recommend regular eye exams. Instruct patients to report any visual changes promptly.

  • Ovulation: Therapy with pioglitazone may result in ovulation in some premenopausal anovulatory women.

Warnings and Precautions—for NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI

  • Acute pancreatitis: There have been reports of acute pancreatitis in both the postmarketing setting and randomized clinical trials. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI.

  • Heart failure: Consider the risks and benefits of NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Patients should be advised of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and should be instructed to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI.

  • Hypersensitivity: There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with alogliptin such as anaphylaxis, angioedema or severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. In such cases, promptly discontinue NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI, assess for other potential causes, institute appropriate monitoring and treatment, and initiate alternative treatment for diabetes. Use caution in patients with a history of angioedema with another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema.

  • Hepatic effects: Postmarketing reports of hepatic failure, sometimes fatal. Causality cannot be excluded. Baseline liver test panel is recommended for OSENI. If liver injury is detected, promptly interrupt NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI and assess patient for probable cause, then treat cause if possible, to resolution or stabilization. Do not restart NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI if liver injury is confirmed and no alternative etiology can be found. Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment.

  • Hypoglycemia: Insulin and insulin secretagogues are known to cause hypoglycemia. A lower dose of the insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk when used in combination with NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI.

  • Arthralgia: Severe and disabling arthralgia has been reported in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. Consider as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.

  • Macrovascular outcomes: There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with NESINA, KAZANO, OSENI, or any other anti-diabetic drug.

Adverse Reactions

  • Most common adverse reactions (≥4% of patients treated with NESINA 25 mg and more frequently than in patients who received placebo) were nasopharyngitis (4.8%), upper respiratory tract infection (4.5%), and headache (4.3%).

  • Most common adverse reactions (≥4% of patients treated with co-administration of alogliptin and metformin) were upper respiratory tract infection (8.0%), nasopharyngitis (6.8%), diarrhea (5.5%), hypertension (5.5%), headache (5.3%), back pain (4.3%), and urinary tract infection (4.2%).

  • Most common adverse reactions (≥4% of patients treated with co-administration of alogliptin and pioglitazone) were nasopharyngitis (4.9%), back pain (4.2%), and upper respiratory tract infection (4.1%).

Drug Interactions

  • Use of OSENI with CYP2C8 strong inhibitors (e.g., gemfibrozil) will, or inducers (e.g., rifampin) may, require dose adjustment.

  • Use of KAZANO with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Consider more frequent monitoring.

  • Use of KAZANO with drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g., cationic drugs such as cimetidine) may increase the accumulation of metformin. Consider more frequent monitoring.

  • Use of KAZANO with alcohol can potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake.

Indication

NESINA (alogliptin), KAZANO (alogliptin and metformin HCl), and OSENI (alogliptin and pioglitazone) are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI are not for treatment of type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis.

Please see the full Prescribing Information, including Medication Guide, for NESINA.

Please see the full Prescribing Information, including Medication Guide, for KAZANO.

Please see the full Prescribing Information, including Medication Guide, for OSENI.

Logo NESINA (alogliptin) 25 mg tablets
Logo KAZANO (alogliptin and metformin HCl) 12.5 mg/500 mg and 12.5 mg/1000 mg tablets
Logo OSENI (alogliptin and pioglitazone) 25 mg/15 mg, 25 mg/30 mg, and 25 mg/45 mg tablets
Hide references
  1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:S11-S66.

  2. NESINA (alogliptin) Prescribing Information. Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

  3. Nauck MA, Ellis GC, Fleck PR, Wilson CA, Mekki Q; Alogliptin Study 008 Group. Efficacy and safety of adding the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin to metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:46-55.

  4. DeFronzo RA, Burant CF, Fleck P, Wilson C, Mekki Q, Pratley RE. Efficacy and tolerability of the DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin combined with pioglitazone, in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1615-1622.

  5. Rosenstock J, Inzucchi SE, Seufert J, Fleck PR, Wilson CA, Mekki Q. Initial combination therapy with alogliptin and pioglitazone in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:2406-2408.

  6. DeFronzo RA, Fleck PR, Wilson CA, Mekki Q; Alogliptin Study 010 Group. Efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2315-2317.

  7. KAZANO (alogliptin and metformin HCl) Prescribing Information. Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

  8. Pratley RE, Fleck P, Wilson C. Efficacy and safety of initial combination therapy with alogliptin plus metformin versus either as monotherapy in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, 6-month study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014;16(7):613-621.

  9. Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach: position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1364-1379.

  10. OSENI (alogliptin and pioglitazone) Prescribing Information. Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

  11. Defronzo RA. From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: a new paradigm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2009;58:773-795.

  12. Bajaj M, Suraamornkul S, Pratipanawatr T, et al. Pioglitazone reduces hepatic fat content and augments splanchnic glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52:1364-1370.

  13. Bosi E, Ellis GC, Wilson CA, Fleck PR. Alogliptin as a third oral antidiabetic drug in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycaemic control on metformin and pioglitazone: a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011;13:1088-1096.

  14. Pratley RE, Reusch JE, Fleck PR, Wilson CA, Mekki Q; Alogliptin Study 009 Group. Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin added to pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:2361-2371.

  15. Puddu A, Sanguineti R, Durante A, Viviani GL. Pioglitazone attenuates the detrimental effects of advanced glycation end-products in the pancreatic beta cell line HIT-T15. Regul Pept. 2012;177:79-84.

  16. Gastaldelli A, Miyazaki Y, Mahankali A, et al. The effect of pioglitazone on the liver: role of adiponectin. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2275-2281.

  17. Nam S, Chesla C, Stotts NA, Kroon L, Janson SL. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;93(1):1-9.

Important Safety Information for NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI

WARNING: CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE—for OSENI

  • Thiazolidinediones, including pioglitazone, which is a component of OSENI, cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients.

  • After initiation of OSENI, and after dose increases, monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of heart failure (e.g., excessive, rapid weight gain, dyspnea, and/or edema). If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care and discontinuation or dose reduction of pioglitazone in OSENI must be considered.

  • OSENI is not recommended in patients with symptomatic heart failure.

  • Initiation of OSENI in patients with established New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated.

WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS—for KAZANO

  • Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (greater than 5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally greater than 5 mcg/mL. Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g., cationic drugs such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment.

  • Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the Full Prescribing Information.

  • If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue KAZANO and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended.

  • NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI are contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reaction to any of the components of these products, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, or severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

  • KAZANO is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2).

  • KAZANO is contraindicated in patients with acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis.

  • Do not initiate OSENI in patients with established NYHA Class III or IV heart failure.

Warnings and Precautions—for KAZANO

  • Lactic acidosis: Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to immediately discontinue KAZANO and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider. Because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, obtain an eGFR before initiating KAZANO and at least annually thereafter; assess more frequently in patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly); KAZANO is not recommended in patients with an eGFR between 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Discontinue KAZANO at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart KAZANO if renal function is stable. KAZANO should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake. Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue KAZANO. Avoid use of KAZANO in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency: Metformin may lower Vitamin B12 levels. Monitor hematologic parameters annually.

Warnings and Precautions—for OSENI

  • Congestive heart failure: Fluid retention may occur and can exacerbate or lead to congestive heart failure. Combination use with insulin and use in congestive heart failure NYHA Class I and II may increase risk. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms.

  • Edema: Dose-related edema may occur. Use with caution in patients with edema.

  • Fractures: Increased incidence in female patients. Apply current standards of care for assessing and maintaining bone health.

  • Bladder cancer: Data suggest an increased risk of bladder cancer in pioglitazone users. Data also suggest that the risk increases with duration of use. Do not use OSENI in patients with active bladder cancer. Use caution when using in patients with a prior history of bladder cancer. Tell patients to promptly report any sign of hematuria or other symptoms such as dysuria or urinary urgency as these may be due to bladder cancer.

  • Macular edema: Macular edema has been reported in some patients taking pioglitazone. Recommend regular eye exams. Instruct patients to report any visual changes promptly.

  • Ovulation: Therapy with pioglitazone may result in ovulation in some premenopausal anovulatory women.

Warnings and Precautions—for NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI

  • Acute pancreatitis: There have been reports of acute pancreatitis in both the postmarketing setting and randomized clinical trials. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI.

  • Heart failure: Consider the risks and benefits of NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Patients should be advised of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and should be instructed to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI.

  • Hypersensitivity: There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with alogliptin such as anaphylaxis, angioedema or severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. In such cases, promptly discontinue NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI, assess for other potential causes, institute appropriate monitoring and treatment, and initiate alternative treatment for diabetes. Use caution in patients with a history of angioedema with another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema.

  • Hepatic effects: Postmarketing reports of hepatic failure, sometimes fatal. Causality cannot be excluded. Baseline liver test panel is recommended for OSENI. If liver injury is detected, promptly interrupt NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI and assess patient for probable cause, then treat cause if possible, to resolution or stabilization. Do not restart NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI if liver injury is confirmed and no alternative etiology can be found. Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment.

  • Hypoglycemia: Insulin and insulin secretagogues are known to cause hypoglycemia. A lower dose of the insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk when used in combination with NESINA, KAZANO, or OSENI.

  • Arthralgia: Severe and disabling arthralgia has been reported in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. Consider as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.

  • Macrovascular outcomes: There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with NESINA, KAZANO, OSENI, or any other anti-diabetic drug.

Adverse Reactions

  • Most common adverse reactions (≥4% of patients treated with NESINA 25 mg and more frequently than in patients who received placebo) were nasopharyngitis (4.8%), upper respiratory tract infection (4.5%), and headache (4.3%).

  • Most common adverse reactions (≥4% of patients treated with co-administration of alogliptin and metformin) were upper respiratory tract infection (8.0%), nasopharyngitis (6.8%), diarrhea (5.5%), hypertension (5.5%), headache (5.3%), back pain (4.3%), and urinary tract infection (4.2%).

  • Most common adverse reactions (≥4% of patients treated with co-administration of alogliptin and pioglitazone) were nasopharyngitis (4.9%), back pain (4.2%), and upper respiratory tract infection (4.1%).

Drug Interactions

  • Use of OSENI with CYP2C8 strong inhibitors (e.g., gemfibrozil) will, or inducers (e.g., rifampin) may, require dose adjustment.

  • Use of KAZANO with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Consider more frequent monitoring.

  • Use of KAZANO with drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g., cationic drugs such as cimetidine) may increase the accumulation of metformin. Consider more frequent monitoring.

  • Use of KAZANO with alcohol can potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake.

Indication

NESINA (alogliptin), KAZANO (alogliptin and metformin HCl), and OSENI (alogliptin and pioglitazone) are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. NESINA, KAZANO, and OSENI are not for treatment of type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis.

Please see the full Prescribing Information, including Medication Guide, for NESINA.

Please see the full Prescribing Information, including Medication Guide, for KAZANO.

Please see the full Prescribing Information, including Medication Guide, for OSENI.

Logo NESINA (alogliptin) 25 mg tablets
Logo KAZANO (alogliptin and metformin HCl) 12.5 mg/500 mg and 12.5 mg/1000 mg tablets
Logo OSENI (alogliptin and pioglitazone) 25 mg/15 mg, 25 mg/30 mg, and 25 mg/45 mg tablets
Hide references
  1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:S11-S66.

  2. NESINA (alogliptin) Prescribing Information. Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

  3. Nauck MA, Ellis GC, Fleck PR, Wilson CA, Mekki Q; Alogliptin Study 008 Group. Efficacy and safety of adding the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin to metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:46-55.

  4. DeFronzo RA, Burant CF, Fleck P, Wilson C, Mekki Q, Pratley RE. Efficacy and tolerability of the DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin combined with pioglitazone, in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1615-1622.

  5. Rosenstock J, Inzucchi SE, Seufert J, Fleck PR, Wilson CA, Mekki Q. Initial combination therapy with alogliptin and pioglitazone in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:2406-2408.

  6. DeFronzo RA, Fleck PR, Wilson CA, Mekki Q; Alogliptin Study 010 Group. Efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2315-2317.

  7. KAZANO (alogliptin and metformin HCl) Prescribing Information. Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

  8. Pratley RE, Fleck P, Wilson C. Efficacy and safety of initial combination therapy with alogliptin plus metformin versus either as monotherapy in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, 6-month study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014;16(7):613-621.

  9. Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach: position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1364-1379.

  10. OSENI (alogliptin and pioglitazone) Prescribing Information. Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

  11. Defronzo RA. From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: a new paradigm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2009;58:773-795.

  12. Bajaj M, Suraamornkul S, Pratipanawatr T, et al. Pioglitazone reduces hepatic fat content and augments splanchnic glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52:1364-1370.

  13. Bosi E, Ellis GC, Wilson CA, Fleck PR. Alogliptin as a third oral antidiabetic drug in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycaemic control on metformin and pioglitazone: a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011;13:1088-1096.

  14. Pratley RE, Reusch JE, Fleck PR, Wilson CA, Mekki Q; Alogliptin Study 009 Group. Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin added to pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:2361-2371.

  15. Puddu A, Sanguineti R, Durante A, Viviani GL. Pioglitazone attenuates the detrimental effects of advanced glycation end-products in the pancreatic beta cell line HIT-T15. Regul Pept. 2012;177:79-84.

  16. Gastaldelli A, Miyazaki Y, Mahankali A, et al. The effect of pioglitazone on the liver: role of adiponectin. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2275-2281.

  17. Nam S, Chesla C, Stotts NA, Kroon L, Janson SL. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;93(1):1-9.